According to the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health, cancers that are known collectively as head and neck cancers usually begin in the squamous cells that line the moist, mucosal surfaces inside the head and neck (for example, inside the mouth, the nose, and the throat). These squamous cell cancers are often referred to as squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck.
The American Cancer Society’s most recent estimates for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers in the United States are for 2017:
- About 49,670 people will get oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer.
- An estimated 9,700 people will die of these cancers.
These cancers are more than twice as common in men as in women. They are about equally common in blacks and in whites.
In recent years, the overall rate of new cases of this disease has been stable in men and dropping slightly in women. However, there has been a recent rise in cases of oropharyngeal cancer linked to infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in white men and women.
First sign of trouble? – lateral neck masses in adults (click here for source):
75% of lateral (side) neck masses in patients over 40 years are caused by malignant tumors
In the absence of overt signs of infection, a lateral neck mass is metastatic squamous cell carcinoma or lymphoma until proved otherwise
The primary tumor can be detected in 50% of patients by clinical examination alone and in a further 10-15% by panendoscopy of the upper aerodigestive tract
Fine needle aspiration biopsy is an accurate, sensitive, inexpensive, and rapid technique that can be performed in the clinic
Excisional and incisional biopsy of cervical metastases results in a 2-3 times increased incidence of local treatment failure when compared with fine needle aspiration cytology
Excisional biopsy of parotid tumours risks damage to the facial nerve and seeding of the wound, and recurrence may develop up to 20 years after the first attempt at resection
- Head and Neck Cancer (American Society of Clinical Oncology)
- Head and Neck Cancers (National Cancer Institute)
- 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer (American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery)
- Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth (National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research)
- Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ) (National Cancer Institute)